The allergy to some pollens, such as grasses, olive, and arizonica, has exploded in the last five years and have also become more aggressive, but so has dry nuts, which is sometimes manifested by anaphylaxis, An immune reaction that can lead to death.
This is one of the conclusions of the report ‘Allergology’ 2015, prepared by the Spanish Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Seaic), which has been presented today and also reveals that allergy sufferers are getting younger.
The study has been developed in the consultations of more than 300 specialists and has included almost 3,000 patients children and adults from all over Spain, who were interviewed in 2014. This is the third report made by this society, which had already elaborated Two in 2005 and 1992.
In the second report, the average age of the patients was 16 years and in the latter of 2015 has dropped to 12, and the reason is that pollen is more aggressive and the culprit is pollution, such As doctors Joaquín Sastre, president of the Seaic, and Tomas Chivato explained.
The particles of the contamination “stick” to the pollen and these become more virulent, affect and irritate the mucous more and rhinitis develop.
This “aggressiveness” caused by pollution also makes even some foreigners who were not allergic in their country of origin when they arrive here. The 6% of patients in the study are foreigners.
“There is something in the explosive environment that causes gene expression to change, it attacks the expression of the proteins that are growing,” said Sastre, who has warned that if this trend continues in 2050, 50% of the population will have some disease Allergic reaction. Currently, the percentage is 25%.
In addition, these “more aggressive” pollen sometimes share proteins with some fruits such as rosacea, including peach, which establishes combined allergies and patients with cross-disease, as explained by experts.
It is what is called “allergic march”, a term that determines the allergists for the evolution that usually suffer the people who suffer several allergic diseases.
The worrying thing, according to specialists, is that only a third of allergy is controlled, hence allergists are looking for different formulas to increase adherence to treatments.
Six out of ten patients who first go to the allergist’s office do so for symptoms related to rhinoconjunctivitis.
The second reason for consultation is asthma (23.4%), the third is hypersensitivity to medications (17.7%) and the fourth is a food allergy (10%).
Concerning the 2005 report, consultations for rhinitis as a single pathology (42% vs. 34.3%) have increased, and consultations for asthma have also been reduced as a single disease (7.2% vs. 3.4%),.
In 68% of patients with rhinoconjunctivitis, other allergic diseases coexist, and among them, asthma prevails, but the percentage of patients who consult both conditions has remained stable at 20%.
They have increased food allergies and have increased especially to nuts both children and adults, and largely as Sastre, because now consume more, as there is also more awareness of dogs, while Maintains that of the cats.
The patients in the study are mostly women (58% vs. 42% of men) because, although the causes are unknown, they are at the head of all allergic diseases above men, except for allergy to Hymenoptera.
Regarding the place of residence, 61% come from urban environments, precisely because in the big cities suffer more allergies than in rural areas due to the effect of environmental pollution.
Allergists believe that more specialists are needed to attend to the new consultations that are carried out every year: 1.100.000 in Spain, except in the Balearics, where there are still no allergists in public health.